Electronic Cigarette and Vapor Laws: A Travel Guide by Country

Welcome to the A Clean Cigarette travel guide. Please be patient while I am gathering information on each of these countries. If you are going on a trip soon and I have not gotten to that country on this list please drop me a comment in the area at the bottom of the page. I will find you the answers…or I will do my best to find you the answers.

Remeber I am just Dawn, not a geographic expert or travel agent. Also, none of this is intended as legal advice!!!! Also if you are looking for legal advice, please do not look on blogs…call a lawyer…please.

~Special Notes~

This is a lot of work, I will start it now (12/12/17) but the information may not be 100% complete for a while yet.

  • Keep in mind that in some countries resort areas have different rules then everywhere else. If traveling to a resort try to give them a call and see if they can help you.
  • Stuff changes check back before traveling!
  • Do your research do not count on one source (even this one) mistakes happen and sitting in a prison for 10 years because you unintentionally broke a law just by having an e-cig would freaking bite. This site is not intended to be legal advice.
  • TDP* = European Tobacco Products Directive. A two-tier program that allows for no nicotine electronic cigarettes and vaporizers but requires a doctors note, or prescription for nicotine-containing solutions. To see more details on what this means check out this PDF provided by the EU’s equivalent to a .gov site: Click Here

Before we get started I would like to give a huge call out to the US Dept of State for the list of countries, including the links. Made this job a ton easier! If you choose to follow the link for each country to the State Department provided page you may be asked to submit a survey. This is in no way connected with A Clean Cigarette. It is a research-based survey. Participation is optional.


  • Afghanistan – Banned: Just entering the country with an e-cigarette can be considered importing it, which is illegal and can carry prison time as well as steep fines.
  • Albania – Loosely regulated as tobacco. When in Albania pay close attention to where you can and can not smoke regular burning tobacco. If you can’t smoke in a place, you can not e-cigarette or vape there either.
  • AlgeriaUnconfirmed:. Many reports say that e-cigs are regulated like tobacco in Algeria, but some reports say unregulated. I will work to find answers!!
  • Andorra – Unconfirmed: We can find mention of Andorra in a few Blogs but no hard evidence either way. Most of the mentions were in relation to ski vacations and luggage and many people thought that it would be okay…but nothing solid yet. I am working on this one still.
  • Angola–  Legal: Do your e-cigarette your way when in Angola
  • Antigua and Barbuda – Regulated: As of January of 2017 E-cigarettes are not regulated much like tobacco in this country. You can use your e-cigarette anywhere traditional cigarettes can be smoked.
  • Argentina – Banned: Absolutely no e-cigarettes because they “may not be safe” but burning tobacco (which only kills 6 million people a year) is A-OKAY….smh
  • Armenia – Ban in Progress:  In 2004 Armenia banned traditional burning tobacco and as of a June 2017 announcement, plans to ban e-cigarette. The report is unsure whether it will be ALL e-cigarettes or just nicotine-containing devices. We will update this once the information is all in.
  • ArubaLegal with stipulations: The big thing here is in how much you are bringing. While they have not set exact limits for e-cigarettes that I can find, the rules for cigarettes in regards to importation (even in luggage while on vacation is importation) are pretty strict as far as how much one can travel with. Best advice here keep quantities low and for personal use only. If they think you are importing for distribution, things can get pretty rocky.
  • Australia – Partial ban: E-cigarettes containing nicotine are not okay. Just bringing them in the country is against the law if they contain any nicotine at all. Personal use of e-liquid containing nicotine is not illegal for residents if purchased from EU approved dealer, however since importing is illegal this is a slippery slope for people visiting from outside the country. Careful how much you try to get through customs. No ban of any sort on 0 nicotine cartridges or fluids. Vaping is allowed anywhere smoking is.
  • Austria – Regulated under *TDP: Here they are considered medical devices. So no prescription? No e-cigarettes. In some TDP countries, 0 nicotine fluids are fine. According to reports that is not so here in Austria.
  • AzerbaijanLoosely regulated as tobacco: Best advice, use only where people can smoke tobacco.


  • Bahamas, The – Unregulated: As of now there are no rules, regulations or laws regarding electronic cigarettes of any kind. As with any country, things are subject to change fast here so I will keep a watchful eye!
  • BahrainBanned: Reports indicate that even trying to enter the country with a bit for personal use could get you in hot water. However, there are a couple of reports that vacationers who had their electronic cigarettes and vape devices (Including Mods) confiscated upon arriving were able to retrieve them from customs on their way out of the country.
  • BangladeshUnregulated BUT: Okay so while there are no actual laws saying no e-cigarettes and there ARE vapor and e-cigarette stores in Bangladesh, many news reports have surfaced claiming that devices the look at ALL like a weapon or like something that could be drug paraphernalia has triggered police raids, violence, and device confiscation. In some cases, vapers have been arrested or publicly berated for devices that look “suspicious”  Use your products with care in this country to avoid unwanted attention. PS. Whatever you do DO NOT blow large vape clouds as the clouds seem to trigger a public outcry from misinformed people which could lead to unwanted police attention for you!
  • BarbadosRegulated like tobacco: As of February 2017 E-cigarettes, vapes and burning tobacco all carry the same regulatory stipulations. Importation of large quantities will cause issues and be sure to only use your ENDS** devices in approved locations.
  • BelarusRegulated as tobacco: As of May 2017 electronic cigarettes and vapor products are regulated as tobacco. Only bring a personal amount with you to avoid issues with customs but chances are you will be able to find the product right there in Belarus so don’t stress running out.
  • BelgiumPartial ban: E-cigarettes containing nicotine are not okay unless they are purchased outside Belgium, at a TDP certified, EU approved dealer* and ordered on a personal use basis. There is however absolutely NO sale or distribution of nicotine-containing products within the country. There is no ban or regulation of any sort on 0 nicotine cartridges or fluids.
  • Belize – Regulated as tobacco: In this country, that means a lot because tobacco is banned in ALL public areas. You can get through customs with an Electronic cigarette or vaper unit but Only bring a personal amount with you to avoid issues with customs.
  • Benin Legal: Apparently its a do what you want situation in Benin. That being said this small country in Africa is not very up to date on many things so be careful carrying units that may look like weapons.
  • BhutanBanned: Both traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes are banned in this country. some sources say that tourist may bring in a personal supply, others say don’t do it. I am going to go don’t do it and here is why. You can’t use it anywhere anyhow and if you get caught smoking in a non-smoking area (which is everywhere since they are the ONLY country in the world to 100% outlaw traditional cigarettes.) it can carry a light fine of $250 ish AND 3 years in prison!! Not worth the risk in our books.
  • BoliviaUnclear: No two reports are the same here and there is just not a lot of available information. I will keep working on it but as of now; Travel with care.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina Legal: More then just legal it has been decided that nicotine-containing e-liquid is NOT classified as tobacco.
  • BotswanaLegal: Just declare what you have and don’t flash devices that may look like a weapon.
  • Brazil – Banned: Here electronic cigarettes are regulated as tobacco products. All laws including no importation that affects tobacco also affect e-cigarettes and vapor products.
  • Brunei – Banned: Sales are prohibited because they are considered imitation tobacco products. Can be punished by up to $10,000 in fines.
  • BulgariaLegal: Also incredibly popular here. You can travel here with your products or pick up products while you are in Bulgaria. Electronic cigarettes are sold in most tobacco shops and Bulgaria has a bunch of them.
  • Burkina Fasouncertain: Looks like online retailers will ship here but I can not find any stores in this country OR any information regarding regulations and electronic cigarettes.
  • BurmaLegal: For now it’s all clear as far as regulations. As long as you are traveling with personal use items and you have them in your carry on luggage you should be good to go.
  • BurundiLegal: Although most natives order their products online. Bring stuff with you it may be hard to find there.


  • CambodiaBanned: Pretty much completely banned here although some people claim they were able to bring there own supply and use it without any harassment. That being said if they want to be jerks they can hit you with fines and even possible jail time so if it were me…I would be darn careful here.
  • CameroonLegal: The Prime Minister reportedly went on record and said that electronic cigarettes are a valid tool to help people quit smoking.
  • Canada – Region  by Region so please see the Canada page HERE
  • Cabo VerdeApparently legal: Getting product shipped here seems to be very doable but I can not find absolute confirmation. I can, however, find mention of vacationers purchasing Electronic cigarettes while here.
  • Central African RepublicUncertain: Reports indicate that you should be fine, however, customs has specific rules for Men travelers vs Female travelers. For instance, female guest may not take any cigars across the border, whereas their male counterparts can bring up tp 200 cigarettes. Just keep this in mind while traveling.
  • ChadRegulated: Vapers must use designated smoking areas but otherwise its okay in Chad to get your nicotine on.
  • ChilePartial Ban: E-cigarette that contains nicotine are considered medical devices. Absolutely no importation of nicotine-containing products without a prescription for electronic cigarettes for nicotine replacement therapy.
  • China – Region by Region so please see the China page HERE
  • Colombia–  ??? This country is a little unclear. While it is listed as banned on many older sites, Colombia hosted the “Central and South American Vape Expo” this last summer, so we suggest you travel with care but you should be okay…maybe?
  • Comoros – Uncertain: This small island country off of Africa is hard to find information on. If traveling to uncertain places be careful, carry only products you are alright with throwing away and consider declaring when you enter what you have.
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of theRegulated as Tobacco: Using an electronic cigarette in Congo is very similar to smoking a burning tobacco cigarette. Use in designated areas only. Smoking and vaping are prohibited in most enclosed places.
  • Congo, Republic of theRegulated as tobacco: While it may look like a typo, the fact is there are two “Congo’s”. Both earned their independents in 1960. As for this Congo, it has very similar regulations as the other Congo. I think… it is very hard to get searches on each of these places as individual entities. Be careful and use your e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are okay and you should be fine.
  • Costa Rica – Permitted: E-cigarettes and Vapor products are regulated like tobacco in Costa Rica. So there will be some places you can not use the product by traveling with your e-cigarette should not be a problem. Some sights suggest you declare it at customs, however, most of these sights seem to be talking about importing with the intent to distribute.
  • Cote d’IvoireUnregulated: This small West African country which is also known as “the Ivory Coast” has yet to set specific regulations around vaping and electronic cigarettes. So if you go here, be wise. Don’t screw it up for the rest of us by blowing giant clouds of vape in a restaurant or around large groups of people. If we are jerks they will have to regulate, and while some regulations are fine,  no one wants them to regulated based on our bad behavior.
  • CroatiaRegulated: While it is legal to use e-cigarettes in most places, including indoors where there are “smoking” sections, Croatia has a relatively tough stance on both tobacco and E-cigarettes. Bottom line, pay attention here but
  • CubaRegulated but FUNKY: Okay, the situation in Cuba is a bit odd. So if you travel there they will let you into the country with it, you can even use it in the country. However, you may NOT leave the country with it……Is anyone else confused? It’s a true story so don’t bring any type of device you are not willing to toss in the trash on your way out of this odd destination. (sometimes they don’t take it according to reports but still…just in case)
  • CuracaoRegulated like Tobacco: Fun Fact for the day, this little country is actually located INSIDE the Netherlands and is dictated by the laws that govern the Netherlands. So use in designated area’s and keep quantities to a minimum.
  • CyprusPermitted: Cyprus freaking rocks. So if you want to smoke traditional burning tobacco there are all kinds of laws that could affect you, however, e-cigarettes are considered a consumer product and therefore are not affected by tobacco laws in any way.
  • Czechia – Regulated: As of May 2017, the laws here got really confusing. There are rules about what components can be used with e-cigarettes, vapors, and Mods as well as quantity restrictions for importing. One page I found seemed to have the best info for this regulator nightmare:  Click Here. The best bet here is to call them before you go and get clarification if you have ANY questions.


  • Denmark – Regulated under *TDP: Permitted without regulation if 0 nicotine device. Nicotine devices are considered a medical device and require a prescription or medical approved doctors note.
  • DjiboutiUnclear: We cannot be 100% sure here but it does look like recently some companies have started to ship products here. All heavy with disclaimers about Our advise? Customs and Confiscation. Be careful and travel with cheap easy to throw away devices.
  • Dominica: Regulated under *TDP: Not to be confused with the Dominican Republic this small Country falls under the UK  rules for E-cigarettes. 0 nic products are not regulated but products with nicotine that are not accompanied by a Doctors note may have problems in Dominica.
  • Dominican RepublicUnclear: It seems that as with some other underdeveloped countries it is hit or miss here. Most travelers claim they entered with little to no issue, but had products confiscated as they left the country. Cary items you will not be mad about losing.


  • EcuadorRegulated as tobacco:  Which means that vaping in enclosed spaces such as restaurants and stores is prohibited. Just be sure to only travel with personal amounts so not to get in hot water over importation.
  • EgyptBanned, kind of: E-cigarettes are legal, but using them is not. I have no advice here. Seems like there are retailers that have no issue with shipping to Egypt though so, there is that.
  • El SalvadorPermitted: Public use should be fine. Doctors in this country are even permitted to offer cards to their patients that explain that they are using the e-cigarette as a smoking cessation tool.
  • Equatorial GuineaUncertain: I can not find a for sure answer here however if we look at the surrounding areas of this small country in Africa we see places like Benin, where it is pretty much a do as you would like situation. To be safe make sure to let them know you have it and don’t be impolite about where and how you use it.
  • EritreaUncertain: This country is nicknamed the worlds most repressed country and is among the poorest places on earth. I have no certain answer either way but I myself would avoid doing anything to tick these guys off.
  • EstoniaRegulated: This country falls under the two-tier rules followed by most of the UK and EU. That means 0 nic fluids are okay but anything containing nicotine must have the equivalent of a doctors prescription.
  • EthiopiaLegal with stipulations: Vaping is okay, but neither vaping or smoking is allowed in any way in public. So keep it behind closed doors.


  • FijiLegal with stipulations: For those of us just traveling to Fiji it is fine to bring a small amount for personal use. Don’t go crazy though because if they think you are bringing it in to sell or distribute then things may get rocky. All sales of these products require tobacco licensing and that process is apparently a red tape headache.
  • FinlandRegulated with TDP: As with many other European countries, Finland has decided that e-cigarettes and vapor products must have a medical license to be sold or distributed if they contain nicotine. No nicotine versions are unregulated. Citizens can order online and have cartridges or bottles of nicotine-containing fluid of less than 10mg delivered and they are purchased from TDP certified UA approved providers.
  • France – Legal with Stipulations: Zero nicotine products are no issue. However, If a product claims to be for smoking cessation; or if the amount of nicotine in a cartridge is greater than or equal to 10 mg; or if the nicotine strength in a refill is more than or equal to 20mg/ml, then the product must have a medical license.


  • GabonPermitted: Using an electronic cigarette or vapor product is fine as long as you stick to designated smoking areas.
  • Gambia, TheUnconfirmed: Apparently some travelers have had items taken when they arrive in this country, while others say they have had no problems. I have no confirmed information either way
  • Georgia Permitted: After May of 2018 when the new tobacco rules come into effect they will be regulated as tobacco products.
  • Germany-Permitted: As of now German courts have decided that nicotine-containing e-liquids are not a medical device and since e-cigarettes are not yet regulated as tobacco in Germany vaping and e-cigarettes are a popular German pass time. There is a tax on e-liquid here though.
  • Ghana– Regulated Like Tobacco: Use of electronic cigarettes is allowed in designated areas.
  • GreecePermitted Under *TDP: The EU two-tier regulations that allow 0 nicotine liquids but require doctors note or prescription for nicotine-containing fluids and they must also be purchased from a UA approved provider.
  • GrenadaUncertain: This small island country near Barbados does not have a ton of information available, but if we assume this island is regulated like the rest of the small islands around it, then electronic cigarettes and vapor products are regulated much like tobacco. Smoke in designated areas and only bring products for personal use.
  • GuatemalaUnregulated: but subject to change soon.
  • GuineaUncertain: Both this country and the next one down are near each other, unfortunately, civil unrest and more pressing matters seem to have gotten in the way of any development on the electronic cigarette front. I can find a couple reports from travelers who say they had no issue, but they are old and vague.
  • Guinea-BissauUncertain: Both this country and the next one above this are near each other, unfortunately, civil unrest and more pressing matters seem to have gotten in the way of any development on the electronic cigarette front. I can find a couple reports from travelers who say they had no issue, but they are old and vague.
  • GuyanaBanned along with Tobacco: As of this year (2017) ALL Tobacco and Electronic cigarette products are banned. Reports that this ban is not regularly enforced have surfaced. Also, the reported black market sale of both these items is easy to find. However, the punishment for violators is hefty fines and a possible jail stay so …


  • Haiti– I can find absolutely nothing on this. I will keep looking. I will say it was pretty obvious that this travel guide is needed since when I tried to search for information all that came up was this blog…
  • Holy SeeBanned: Tobacco and e-cigarettes are now banned by the Pope in the Holy See.
  • HondurasRegulated like tobacco: So no indoor smoking and only smoking in designated smoking areas only. Even if you are not smoking…smh
  • Hong Kong– See the CHINA page for more information on Hong Kong
  • HungaryRegulated under *TDP: Side note, although yes Hungary has recently opened its doors to the EU approved dealers under the TDP, this country is known for having the most extreme regulations out of any of the European nations for both burning tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Smoking bans are nearly everywhere and it may be hard to find a good place to use your products.


  • IcelandRegulated and those regulations are being updated: Alright, so as of now e-cigarettes and vapor products are legal. However, cartridges and refills containing more than 0.9mg of nicotine are illegal. That is about to change according to some reports like this one here. According to the reports, one option on the table is to limit the sales of electronic cigarettes to adults and to limit e-liquids to a maximum nicotine strength of 20 mg/ml and a maximum bottle volume of 10 ml. Travelers do not report having an issue getting personal use products into Iceland though.
  • IndiaUnregulated but about to be Banned: India has real issues happening when it comes to the regulation of electronic cigarettes and vapor devices. According to a host of sources, India is all set to ban the use and sale of these devices sometime in 2018. Since most of the articles are just speculatory about what could happen based on what is happening on their political front, I am not going to add any details of the upcoming ban yet. I will, however, keep an eye out and update this as soon as I have solid facts.
  • IndonesiaBanned: Altogether banned. Import, export, sale it’s all banned and strictly enforced.
  • IranBanned for religious reasons: Although not banned by law, this Islamic country views the use of nicotine as banned. Reports of a few shops in Iran that carry some electronic cigarettes at a very high price can be found. But product confiscation is a big risk when traveling to Iran. As for the sentence for using nicotine…depends on who is enforcing the law when it comes to the Islamic movement.
  • Iraq–  Same as Iran
  • Ireland – Regulated under *TDP: As of May 2017 Ireland is under the two-tier program that so many other Europian nations are.
  • IsraelRegulated like tobacco: Big tobacco brand electronic cigarettes are the easiest to find here. No smoking in enclosed and public spaces.
  • ItalyEncouraged: No Banned: No Permitted: No Banned: No Permitted with huge taxes: No regulated like Tobacco: No Encouraged and Heavily Taxed: WTH?!?! Italy has flip-flopped more times then I can count. between court hearings and political paydays, even the residents of Italy are unsure what the rules are. What is for sure is that Italy originally encouraged e-cigarette use so much that they created a well tested and rigorously designed brand of electronic cigarette they touted as significantly safer than burning tobacco. They then made an effort to switch all Italian smokers to this brand of electronic cigarette. At some point, they decided that they were losing too much money (at least that’s what it looks like from what I can find) and put an 80% tax on them. Thankfully a court ruling determined that unconstitutional. That tax was later replaced by a 40% tax……… Let’s all pause for a moment of silence for all Italian smokers.  It’s a sad day when a country admits to knowing the truth but then apparently decides to go for the dollar over the human life.


  • Jamaica–  Not Banned: But they can not be imported. Which means that traveling here with one of these products is at your own risk. Many travelers report having customs confiscate their e-cigarettes and vapor devices. As for use of the product, anywhere smoking is allowed only.
  • Japan – Permitted: Shops are not allowed to sell nicotine-containing fluid, however, people can have nicotine-containing products shipped to them for personal use. Keep quantities low and be prepared for a few questions.
  • Jordan Banned: While the law bans electronic cigarettes and vapor products, even the zero nicotine e-liquids, many traveler reports having no issue going in and out of Jordan with their devices. Law definitely says banned though.


  • KazakhstanUnclear: I can’t find anything that pertains directly to electronic cigarettes for this country, which is nestled between China and Russia. I can say that they allow the personal import of traditional cigarettes for personal use and that some older reports indicate they enforce regulations much like their tobacco regulations. So keep amounts low and don’t bring anything you will be mad about losing.
  • Kenya Legal: Travelers should have no problems with personal use amounts in Kenya.
  • Kiribati
  • Korea, NorthWho freaking knows: This hermit country is no place for tourists anyway. Just don’t go here and you won’t have to worry about it. IF you do go to North Korea….everything is illegal and if they think you are smuggling ANYTHING that they even kind of find threatening, you end up at a local prison camp for the duration of your stay. So yea, there’s that.
  • Korea, SouthLegal: As of now e-cigarettes are categorized differently than their burning tobacco counterparts. However, in October of 2017 new legislation was introduced to add tobacco taxes to e-cigarette sales. If and when this happens it is predicted that many of the shops currently open here will have a hard time keeping their doors open.
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan


  • Laos-Legal with stipulations: Sorta treated like tobacco here. The most important thing to remember is smoke only in designated areas and be discreet. being obtuse with cigarette smoke or vapor is considered incredibly rude. Even the citizens go to a quiet corner or out of the way area to smoke. If you are considered to be causing a public disturbance then you can not only have your device confiscated you could find yourself spending a few nights in lockup.
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg




  • OmanProhibited: They will most likely confiscate your device at the gate. If you are willing to risk it being confiscated then an idea would be to take a cig-a-like apart (cartridge separate from the battery) and store the parts in two different sections of your carry on bag. Never in your checked luggage. Even then though no Guarantees. Tip: A Clean Cigarette is a Cig-a-like



  • QatarRegulated asTobacco: In Qatar that means absolutely no smoking anywhere other than designated smoking areas, and when they say smoking they mean electronic cigarettes and vapors too. If caught anywhere else the will confiscate your product and you could face fines or other more serious penalties.






  • Vanuatu*TDP but It’s Complicated: This very small island nation is actually made up of over 80 tiny islands. While all of the islands are governed by the same laws, each island that is able to house people kinda has its own thoughts on how to enforce things. According to a few newspapers out of New Zeland (Which is a close neighbor of Vanuatu), electronic cigarettes and vapors are regulated in the two-tier UK method. So 0 nic is okay but anything with nicotine needs the equivalent of a prescription. However according to the few travelers that have reported about this country not only did they not have any issues, they were able to buy products on a couple of the islands. In addition, a handful of online providers ship here.
  • VenezuelaBanned with stipulations: Reports here are very sporadic and all of them claim a little something different from the others. After all the reading between the lines though, here is what I can come up with. All imports and sales are BANNED and doing either of these can get you fined OR in some rare cases imprisoned. As for personal use on the street. It depends on the day. Sometimes travelers report having no issues, sometimes they report having items confiscated and in rare reports, travelers claim they have had to pay fines just for processing these devices. Our advice: If you choose to bring electronic cigarettes or vapor products be very careful and carry cheap items you do not mind losing.
  • VietnamBanned:  Even the possession of electronic cigarettes and vapor devices is banned. Although due to lax enforcement of most laws in Vietnam there is a pretty well developed black market here.The dealers even trade at the open market during the day. So whatever you do don’t travel here with it, or get caught possessing it, but if you need a nicotine fix dispite the risks, you can probably find it at the market.


  • YemenUnclear: Okay so this is a bit confusing but I will do my best to paint a clear picture. In Yemen, it appears that the act of vaping or smoking an electronic cigarette is not regulated.  However, buying, selling or importing is prohibited. Offenders face steep fines. A first offense can run in the thousands and it goes up from there. So if you can get it into the country you can use it….keep in mind though those online shippers of electronic cigarette who ship to Yemen include a disclaimer informing the buyer that if customs confiscates the items it’s at the buyer’s risk. So yea, you can pay for it and they will ship it but if it never shows up, that’s your problem. Best advise? Be very careful and if you absolutely need to bring nicotine, travel with a small device that won’t draw attention and that you won’t mind throwing away.


  • Zambia – Regulated like tobacco: Avoid area’s designated smoke-free while getting your nicotine.
  • Zimbabwe– Legal: Although neither smoking or vaping are allowed in public.

*Countries that except products that are sold by EU approved vendor only do so because of the EU “Free Movement” laws in place.